Is achieving a promotion the outcome of doing great work, thinking through a good self brand and having a thoughtful career plan?... or it is the goal itself?
I think it's an outcome. You can have great skills and leadership abilities and still never get that promotion. However, you're not any less of a great leader where you are.
The goals should be to have the career focus, skills, and reputation you desire through excellent planning, mentoring, networking and sponsorship. The outcome of this thoughtful approach to your life should result in the jobs and levels you desire. However, the promotion is only one measurement of success.